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      60 Abelian Number Fields
       60.1 Construction of Abelian Number Fields
       60.2 Operations for Abelian Number Fields
       60.3 Integral Bases of Abelian Number Fields
       60.4 Galois Groups of Abelian Number Fields
       60.5 Gaussians

      60 Abelian Number Fields

      An abelian number field is a field in characteristic zero that is a finite dimensional normal extension of its prime field such that the Galois group is abelian. In GAP, one implementation of abelian number fields is given by fields of cyclotomic numbers (see Chapter?18). Note that abelian number fields can also be constructed with the more general AlgebraicExtension (67.1-1), a discussion of advantages and disadvantages can be found in?18.6. The functions described in this chapter have been developed for fields whose elements are in the filter IsCyclotomic (18.1-3), they may or may not work well for abelian number fields consisting of other kinds of elements.

      Throughout this chapter, ?_n will denote the cyclotomic field generated by the field ? of rationals together with n-th roots of unity.

      In?60.1, constructors for abelian number fields are described, 60.2 introduces operations for abelian number fields, 60.3 deals with the vector space structure of abelian number fields, and 60.4 describes field automorphisms of abelian number fields,

      60.1 Construction of Abelian Number Fields

      Besides the usual construction using Field (58.1-3) or DefaultField (18.1-16) (see?DefaultField (18.1-16)), abelian number fields consisting of cyclotomics can be created with CyclotomicField (60.1-1) and AbelianNumberField (60.1-2).

      60.1-1 CyclotomicField
      ‣ CyclotomicField( [subfield, ]n )( function )
      ‣ CyclotomicField( [subfield, ]gens )( function )
      ‣ CF( [subfield, ]n )( function )
      ‣ CF( [subfield, ]gens )( function )

      The first version creates the n-th cyclotomic field ?_n. The second version creates the smallest cyclotomic field containing the elements in the list gens. In both cases the field can be generated as an extension of a designated subfield subfield (cf.?60.3).

      CyclotomicField can be abbreviated to CF, this form is used also when GAP prints cyclotomic fields.

      Fields constructed with the one argument version of CF are stored in the global list CYCLOTOMIC_FIELDS, so repeated calls of CF just fetch these field objects after they have been created once.

      gap> CyclotomicField( 5 );  CyclotomicField( [ Sqrt(3) ] );
      CF(5)
      CF(12)
      gap> CF( CF(3), 12 );  CF( CF(4), [ Sqrt(7) ] );
      AsField( CF(3), CF(12) )
      AsField( GaussianRationals, CF(28) )
      

      60.1-2 AbelianNumberField
      ‣ AbelianNumberField( n, stab )( function )
      ‣ NF( n, stab )( function )

      For a positive integer n and a list stab of prime residues modulo n, AbelianNumberField returns the fixed field of the group described by stab (cf.?GaloisStabilizer (60.2-5)), in the n-th cyclotomic field. AbelianNumberField is mainly thought for internal use and for printing fields in a standard way; Field (58.1-3) (cf.?also?60.2) is probably more suitable if one knows generators of the field in question.

      AbelianNumberField can be abbreviated to NF, this form is used also when GAP prints abelian number fields.

      Fields constructed with NF are stored in the global list ABELIAN_NUMBER_FIELDS, so repeated calls of NF just fetch these field objects after they have been created once.

      gap> NF( 7, [ 1 ] );
      CF(7)
      gap> f:= NF( 7, [ 1, 2 ] );  Sqrt(-7); Sqrt(-7) in f;
      NF(7,[ 1, 2, 4 ])
      E(7)+E(7)^2-E(7)^3+E(7)^4-E(7)^5-E(7)^6
      true
      

      60.1-3 GaussianRationals
      ‣ GaussianRationals( global variable )
      ‣ IsGaussianRationals( obj )( category )

      GaussianRationals is the field ?_4 = ?(sqrt{-1}) of Gaussian rationals, as a set of cyclotomic numbers, see Chapter?18 for basic operations. This field can also be obtained as CF(4) (see CyclotomicField (60.1-1)).

      The filter IsGaussianRationals returns true for the GAP object GaussianRationals, and false for all other GAP objects.

      (For details about the field of rationals, see Chapter?Rationals (17.1-1).)

      gap> CF(4) = GaussianRationals;
      true
      gap> Sqrt(-1) in GaussianRationals;
      true
      

      60.2 Operations for Abelian Number Fields

      For operations for elements of abelian number fields, e.g., Conductor (18.1-7) or ComplexConjugate (18.5-2), see Chapter?18.

      60.2-1 Factors
      ‣ Factors( F )( method )

      Factoring of polynomials over abelian number fields consisting of cyclotomics works in principle but is not very efficient if the degree of the field extension is large.

      gap> x:= Indeterminate( CF(5) );
      x_1
      gap> Factors( PolynomialRing( Rationals ), x^5-1 );
      [ x_1-1, x_1^4+x_1^3+x_1^2+x_1+1 ]
      gap> Factors( PolynomialRing( CF(5) ), x^5-1 );
      [ x_1-1, x_1+(-E(5)), x_1+(-E(5)^2), x_1+(-E(5)^3), x_1+(-E(5)^4) ]
      

      60.2-2 IsNumberField
      ‣ IsNumberField( F )( property )

      returns true if the field F is a finite dimensional extension of a prime field in characteristic zero, and false otherwise.

      60.2-3 IsAbelianNumberField
      ‣ IsAbelianNumberField( F )( property )

      returns true if the field F is a number field (see?IsNumberField (60.2-2)) that is a Galois extension of the prime field, with abelian Galois group (see?GaloisGroup (58.3-1)).

      60.2-4 IsCyclotomicField
      ‣ IsCyclotomicField( F )( property )

      returns true if the field F is a cyclotomic field, i.e., an abelian number field (see?IsAbelianNumberField (60.2-3)) that can be generated by roots of unity.

      gap> IsNumberField( CF(9) ); IsAbelianNumberField( Field( [ ER(3) ] ) );
      true
      true
      gap> IsNumberField( GF(2) );
      false
      gap> IsCyclotomicField( CF(9) );
      true
      gap> IsCyclotomicField( Field( [ Sqrt(-3) ] ) );
      true
      gap> IsCyclotomicField( Field( [ Sqrt(3) ] ) );
      false
      

      60.2-5 GaloisStabilizer
      ‣ GaloisStabilizer( F )( attribute )

      Let F be an abelian number field (see?IsAbelianNumberField (60.2-3)) with conductor n, say. (This means that the n-th cyclotomic field is the smallest cyclotomic field containing F, see?Conductor (18.1-7).) GaloisStabilizer returns the set of all those integers k in the range [ 1 .. n ] such that the field automorphism induced by raising n-th roots of unity to the k-th power acts trivially on F.

      gap> r5:= Sqrt(5);
      E(5)-E(5)^2-E(5)^3+E(5)^4
      gap> GaloisCyc( r5, 4 ) = r5;  GaloisCyc( r5, 2 ) = r5;
      true
      false
      gap> GaloisStabilizer( Field( [ r5 ] ) );
      [ 1, 4 ]
      

      60.3 Integral Bases of Abelian Number Fields

      Each abelian number field is naturally a vector space over ?. Moreover, if the abelian number field F contains the n-th cyclotomic field ?_n then F is a vector space over ?_n. In GAP, each field object represents a vector space object over a certain subfield S, which depends on the way F was constructed. The subfield S can be accessed as the value of the attribute LeftActingDomain (57.1-11).

      The return values of NF (60.1-2) and of the one argument versions of CF (60.1-1) represent vector spaces over ?, and the return values of the two argument version of CF (60.1-1) represent vector spaces over the field that is given as the first argument. For an abelian number field F and a subfield S of F, a GAP object representing F as a vector space over S can be constructed using AsField (58.1-9).

      Let F be the cyclotomic field ?_n, represented as a vector space over the subfield S. If S is the cyclotomic field ?_m, with m a divisor of n, then CanonicalBasis( F ) returns the Zumbroich basis of F relative to S, which consists of the roots of unity E(n)^i where i is an element of the list ZumbroichBase( n, m ) (see?ZumbroichBase (60.3-1)). If S is an abelian number field that is not a cyclotomic field then CanonicalBasis( F ) returns a normal S-basis of F, i.e., a basis that is closed under the field automorphisms of F.

      Let F be the abelian number field NF( n, stab ), with conductor n, that is itself not a cyclotomic field, represented as a vector space over the subfield S. If S is the cyclotomic field ?_m, with m a divisor of n, then CanonicalBasis( F ) returns the Lenstra basis of F relative to S that consists of the sums of roots of unity described by LenstraBase( n, stab, stab, m ) (see?LenstraBase (60.3-2)). If S is an abelian number field that is not a cyclotomic field then CanonicalBasis( F ) returns a normal S-basis of F.

      gap> f:= CF(8);;   # a cycl. field over the rationals
      gap> b:= CanonicalBasis( f );;  BasisVectors( b );
      [ 1, E(8), E(4), E(8)^3 ]
      gap> Coefficients( b, Sqrt(-2) );
      [ 0, 1, 0, 1 ]
      gap> f:= AsField( CF(4), CF(8) );;  # a cycl. field over a cycl. field
      gap> b:= CanonicalBasis( f );;  BasisVectors( b );
      [ 1, E(8) ]
      gap> Coefficients( b, Sqrt(-2) );
      [ 0, 1+E(4) ]
      gap> f:= AsField( Field( [ Sqrt(-2) ] ), CF(8) );;
      gap> # a cycl. field over a non-cycl. field
      gap> b:= CanonicalBasis( f );;  BasisVectors( b );
      [ 1/2+1/2*E(8)-1/2*E(8)^2-1/2*E(8)^3, 
        1/2-1/2*E(8)+1/2*E(8)^2+1/2*E(8)^3 ]
      gap> Coefficients( b, Sqrt(-2) );
      [ E(8)+E(8)^3, E(8)+E(8)^3 ]
      gap> f:= Field( [ Sqrt(-2) ] );   # a non-cycl. field over the rationals
      NF(8,[ 1, 3 ])
      gap> b:= CanonicalBasis( f );;  BasisVectors( b );
      [ 1, E(8)+E(8)^3 ]
      gap> Coefficients( b, Sqrt(-2) );
      [ 0, 1 ]
      

      60.3-1 ZumbroichBase
      ‣ ZumbroichBase( n, m )( function )

      Let n and m be positive integers, such that m divides n. ZumbroichBase returns the set of exponents i for which E(n)^i belongs to the (generalized) Zumbroich basis of the cyclotomic field ?_n, viewed as a vector space over ?_m.

      This basis is defined as follows. Let P denote the set of prime divisors of n, n = ∏_{p ∈ P} p^{ν_p}, and m = ∏_{p ∈ P} p^{μ_p} with μ_p ≤ ν_p. Let e_l = E(l) for any positive integer l, and { e_{n_1}^j }_{j ∈ J} ? { e_{n_2}^k }_{k ∈ K} = { e_{n_1}^j ? e_{n_2}^k }_{j ∈ J, k ∈ K}.

      Then the basis is

      B_{n,m} = ?_{p ∈ P} ?_{k = μ_p}^{ν_p-1} { e_{p^{k+1}}^j }_{j ∈ J_{k,p}}

      where J_{k,p} =

      { 0 } ; k = 0, p = 2
      { 0, 1 } ; k > 0, p = 2
      { 1, ..., p-1 } ; k = 0, p ≠ 2
      { -(p-1)/2, ..., (p-1)/2 } ; k > 0, p ≠ 2

       


      B_{n,1} is equal to the basis of ?_n over the rationals which is introduced in?[Zum89]. Also the conversion of arbitrary sums of roots of unity into its basis representation, and the reduction to the minimal cyclotomic field are described in this thesis. (Note that the notation here is slightly different from that there.)

      B_{n,m} consists of roots of unity, it is an integral basis (that is, exactly the integral elements in ?_n have integral coefficients w.r.t.?B_{n,m}, cf.?IsIntegralCyclotomic (18.1-4)), it is a normal basis for squarefree n and closed under complex conjugation for odd n.

      Note: For n ≡ 2 mod 4, we have ZumbroichBase(n, 1) = 2 * ZumbroichBase(n/2, 1) and List( ZumbroichBase(n, 1), x -> E(n)^x ) = List( ZumbroichBase(n/2, 1), x -> E(n/2)^x ).

      gap> ZumbroichBase( 15, 1 ); ZumbroichBase( 12, 3 );
      [ 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14 ]
      [ 0, 3 ]
      gap> ZumbroichBase( 10, 2 ); ZumbroichBase( 32, 4 );
      [ 2, 4, 6, 8 ]
      [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ]
      

      60.3-2 LenstraBase
      ‣ LenstraBase( n, stabilizer, super, m )( function )

      Let n and m be positive integers such that m divides n, stabilizer be a list of prime residues modulo n, which describes a subfield of the n-th cyclotomic field (see?GaloisStabilizer (60.2-5)), and super be a list representing a supergroup of the group given by stabilizer.

      LenstraBase returns a list [ b_1, b_2, ..., b_k ] of lists, each b_i consisting of integers such that the elements ∑_{j ∈ b_i}E(n)^j form a basis of the abelian number field NF( n, stabilizer ), as a vector space over the m-th cyclotomic field (see?AbelianNumberField (60.1-2)).

      This basis is an integral basis, that is, exactly the integral elements in NF( n, stabilizer ) have integral coefficients. (For details about this basis, see?[Bre97].)

      If possible then the result is chosen such that the group described by super acts on it, consistently with the action of stabilizer, i.e., each orbit of super is a union of orbits of stabilizer. (A usual case is super = stabilizer, so there is no additional condition.

      Note: The b_i are in general not sets, since for stabilizer = super, the first entry is always an element of ZumbroichBase( n, m ); this property is used by NF (60.1-2) and Coefficients (61.6-3) (see?60.3).

      stabilizer must not contain the stabilizer of a proper cyclotomic subfield of the n-th cyclotomic field, i.e., the result must describe a basis for a field with conductor n.

      gap> LenstraBase( 24, [ 1, 19 ], [ 1, 19 ], 1 );
      [ [ 1, 19 ], [ 8 ], [ 11, 17 ], [ 16 ] ]
      gap> LenstraBase( 24, [ 1, 19 ], [ 1, 5, 19, 23 ], 1 );
      [ [ 1, 19 ], [ 5, 23 ], [ 8 ], [ 16 ] ]
      gap> LenstraBase( 15, [ 1, 4 ], PrimeResidues( 15 ), 1 );
      [ [ 1, 4 ], [ 2, 8 ], [ 7, 13 ], [ 11, 14 ] ]
      

      The first two results describe two bases of the field ?_3(sqrt{6}), the third result describes a normal basis of ?_3(sqrt{5}).

      60.4 Galois Groups of Abelian Number Fields

      The field automorphisms of the cyclotomic field ?_n (see Chapter?18) are given by the linear maps *k on ?_n that are defined by E(n)^{*k} =E(n)^k, where 1 ≤ k < n and Gcd( n, k ) = 1 hold (see?GaloisCyc (18.5-1)). Note that this action is not equal to exponentiation of cyclotomics, i.e., for general cyclotomics z, z^{*k} is different from z^k.

      (In GAP, the image of a cyclotomic z under *k can be computed as GaloisCyc( z, k ).)

      gap> ( E(5) + E(5)^4 )^2; GaloisCyc( E(5) + E(5)^4, 2 );
      -2*E(5)-E(5)^2-E(5)^3-2*E(5)^4
      E(5)^2+E(5)^3
      

      For Gcd( n, k ) ≠ 1, the map E(n) ? E(n)^k does not define a field automorphism of ?_n but only a ?-linear map.

      gap> GaloisCyc( E(5)+E(5)^4, 5 ); GaloisCyc( ( E(5)+E(5)^4 )^2, 5 );
      2
      -6
      

      60.4-1 GaloisGroup
      ‣ GaloisGroup( F )( method )

      The Galois group Gal( ?_n, ? ) of the field extension ?_n / ? is isomorphic to the group (? / n ?)^* of prime residues modulo n, via the isomorphism (? / n ?)^* → Gal( ?_n, ? ) that is defined by k + n ? ? ( z ? z^*k ).

      The Galois group of the field extension ?_n / L with any abelian number field L ? ?_n is simply the factor group of Gal( ?_n, ? ) modulo the stabilizer of L, and the Galois group of L / L', with L' an abelian number field contained in L, is the subgroup in this group that stabilizes L'. These groups are easily described in terms of (? / n ?)^*. Generators of (? / n ?)^* can be computed using GeneratorsPrimeResidues (15.2-4).

      In GAP, a field extension L / L' is given by the field object L with LeftActingDomain (57.1-11) value L' (see?60.3).

      gap> f:= CF(15);
      CF(15)
      gap> g:= GaloisGroup( f );
      <group with 2 generators>
      gap> Size( g ); IsCyclic( g ); IsAbelian( g );
      8
      false
      true
      gap> Action( g, NormalBase( f ), OnPoints );
      Group([ (1,6)(2,4)(3,8)(5,7), (1,4,3,7)(2,8,5,6) ])
      

      The following example shows Galois groups of a cyclotomic field and of a proper subfield that is not a cyclotomic field.

      gap> gens1:= GeneratorsOfGroup( GaloisGroup( CF(5) ) );
      [ ANFAutomorphism( CF(5), 2 ) ]
      gap> gens2:= GeneratorsOfGroup( GaloisGroup( Field( Sqrt(5) ) ) );
      [ ANFAutomorphism( NF(5,[ 1, 4 ]), 2 ) ]
      gap> Order( gens1[1] );  Order( gens2[1] );
      4
      2
      gap> Sqrt(5)^gens1[1] = Sqrt(5)^gens2[1];
      true
      

      The following example shows the Galois group of a cyclotomic field over a non-cyclotomic field.

      gap> g:= GaloisGroup( AsField( Field( [ Sqrt(5) ] ), CF(5) ) );
      <group of size 2 with 1 generators>
      gap> gens:= GeneratorsOfGroup( g );
      [ ANFAutomorphism( AsField( NF(5,[ 1, 4 ]), CF(5) ), 4 ) ]
      gap> x:= last[1];;  x^2;
      IdentityMapping( AsField( NF(5,[ 1, 4 ]), CF(5) ) )
      

      60.4-2 ANFAutomorphism
      ‣ ANFAutomorphism( F, k )( function )

      Let F be an abelian number field and k be an integer that is coprime to the conductor (see Conductor (18.1-7)) of F. Then ANFAutomorphism returns the automorphism of F that is defined as the linear extension of the map that raises each root of unity in F to its k-th power.

      gap> f:= CF(25);
      CF(25)
      gap> alpha:= ANFAutomorphism( f, 2 );
      ANFAutomorphism( CF(25), 2 )
      gap> alpha^2;
      ANFAutomorphism( CF(25), 4 )
      gap> Order( alpha );
      20
      gap> E(5)^alpha;
      E(5)^2
      

      60.5 Gaussians

      60.5-1 GaussianIntegers
      ‣ GaussianIntegers( global variable )

      GaussianIntegers is the ring ?[sqrt{-1}] of Gaussian integers. This is a subring of the cyclotomic field GaussianRationals (60.1-3).

      60.5-2 IsGaussianIntegers
      ‣ IsGaussianIntegers( obj )( category )

      is the defining category for the domain GaussianIntegers (60.5-1).

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